Charcoal and other solid biomass fuels are still used in 70 percent of Sub-Saharan Africa, killing over 4 million people annually and depleting forests, in turn reducing rainfall and contributing to climate change and other impacts.
Fortunately, it’s not too late for Sub-Saharan Africa to avert a charcoal-induced public health and environmental catastrophe, and in the process strengthen its clean energy independence and economic growth.
Charcoal is used mainly for cooking by the urban and peri-urban poor; firewood is used by rural populations. Urbanization – at its highest in Sub-Saharan Africa and projected to double there in the next 25 years– overwhelmingly drives charcoal’s rising demand in Sub-Saharan Africa. Sub-Saharan Africa’s population is skyrocketing at an annual average of 2.55 percent from 2010 to 2015 with more than half of global population growth expected in Sub-Saharan Africa by 2050.
Global firewood use is expected to plateau over the next 20 years while charcoal will continue to rise, mostly in Sub-Saharan Africa.
The use of charcoal and other biomass is estimated to kill 4.3 million annually– mainly women and children exposed to smoke from cooking charcoal indoors, causing acute respiratory illnesses, cataracts, heart disease and cancer.
Added to this, Charcoal production severely impacts tropical forest ecosystem services (e.g., shade, soil and water retention, water regulation, carbon sequestration, wildlife habitat) and reduces overall ecosystem resilience.
Over-harvesting of select species for charcoal depletes plant diversity and subsequently diminishes faunal abundance and biodiversity dependent on forest ecosystems.
GHG emissions from producing charcoal in tropical ecosystems are estimated at 103.7 M tons of CO2equivalent (roughly a quarter of total tropical deforestation emissions) and significantly more when counting emissions from use. Charcoal is a top driver of tropical forest loss in the last two decades– with the greatest footprint in Africa.
Firewood and charcoal will remain top energy sources in Sub-Saharan Africa without a swift transition to cleaner, renewable energy.
With Sub-Saharan Africa expected to increase demand for biomass fuels by 40 percent by 2040 under business-as-usual, it is hard to imagine how the world will achieve a switch to 70-85 percent renewables by 2040 as recommended by the International Panel on Climate Change.
Yet without alternative energy sources, simple solutions such as charcoal bans enacted in Malawi, Kenya, and Chad have forced poor households dependent on charcoal to burn furniture, cow dung and even their own homes for energy.
For countries like Uganda to start resembling Wakanda, they will need to find ways to both dramatically ramp up renewable energies and make existing charcoal value chains more sustainable.
Traditional charcoal production methods used in Sub-Saharan Africa typically yield 15-20 percent or less in dry weight and take eight days to produce in industrial kilns.
Improved methods can achieve 40-60 percent yields and only take 15 minutes to two hours to produce, potentially helping reduce deforestation and GHG emissions.
Improved cookstoves (ICS) can vastly improve per-unit efficiency over conventional stoves by improved designs and materials.
But ICS have had limited adoption in Sub-Saharan Africa, despite decades of promotional campaigns and distribution - roughly 53 million stoves and fuels between 2010 and 2015.
Moreover, the lifetime cost of a solar cooking system is comparable to that of charcoal and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), and dropping rapidly with technology improvements.
As the majority of PV upfront costs are invested in batteries, users need financing schemes such as pay-as-you-go meters charging daily rates comparable to charcoal costs.
Solar water heating provides a cheap and technologically-simple alternative to charcoal. Switching from charcoal-heated water to solar-heated water for bathing is one of the simplest and most cost-effective renewable energy technologies.
Equally importantly, residential solar water heaters can be constructed and installed cheaply using local materials.
Electricity and gas
Direct electricity access via a grid significantly reduces costs for electric cookers, as users don’t have to pay for batteries (assuming reliable access). Zambian residents have been found to prefer e-cookers as they cook quicker, produce less fumes and can be left alone to cook.
Though access to electricity has risen 160 percent across Sub-Saharan Africa from 1990 to 2016, many countries will require significant grid expansion for electricity access to become the norm.
Or there's gas. A mixture of propane and butane, LPG is versatile, portable, often less expensive per month than charcoal, and produces less pollution than kerosene, charcoal or wood.
LPG is increasingly seen as a viable, modern fuel to replace charcoal. When given the choice, women often choose LPG over charcoal or other biomass.
As the African LPG market is small and sparse, increasing LPG adoption would require awareness campaigns, safety regulations and enforcement, and public subsidies to support the initial switch.
Moving on from charcoal in Sub-Saharan Africa will require innovative energy sources and means of delivery.
In Kenya and Tanzania, pay-as-you-go fuel companies install an LPG stove, cylinder, and meter, and then accept mobile payments enabling consumers to purchase as little as a day’s worth of LPG, for $0.50, at a time, with automatic delivery of new gas when fuel levels run low.
An essential first step towards improving existing charcoal value chains is to revise market regulations to define sustainable sources and methods for charcoal production.
For example, since 2002 Ghana’s Energy Commission has instituted guidelines on sustainable charcoal production, whereby only approved sources (sawmill residues or plantations established for charcoal production) may export charcoal.
Additionally, programs will need to train traditional charcoal producers to employ efficient methods, develop awareness and disseminate efficient cookstoves, such as under Ghana’s Sustainable Energy Action Plan.
Given the weak adoption of improved cookstoves to date, user-centered design is essential to map types of charcoal users and pinpoint where and what kinds of interventions are most needed.
Despite rapidly falling costs and swiftly increasing installed capacity for charcoal alternatives such as solar PV in Sub-Saharan Africa, government policies are critical to promote these alternatives to their full potential.
At a minimum, governments looking to raise revenues through import taxes should avoid taxing imports of materials and parts needed for solar or LPG, which would undercut the price advantage of these energy systems over charcoal.
More proactively, governments can help by disseminatinginformation and security to buyers of alternative energy systems. This can include testing equipment to make sure it meets standards (like the Energy Star efficiency certification program in the U.S.) and awareness campaigns to inform buyers what to look for in systems and how to use them.
To help users avoid upfront costs for charcoal alternatives, governments can also support development of mobile money financing schemes, or at a minimum, explicitly make them legal.
Identification and mapping of charcoal users will facilitate adoption of alternatives to power clean cookstoves either via grid or off-grid electricity access.
Charcoal-use reduction awareness and behavior change communications focused in urban areas, food vendors, and catering facilities have been found successful in encouraging adoption of charcoal alternatives.
Such programs need to assess potential economic and social barriers to large-scale market diffusion, such as payback times, technical complexity and public awareness and trust in the technology. To avoid forming cultural barriers of charcoal alternatives as being seen as inferior, programs should avoid only targeting such energy systems to poorer classes.
Though currently the charcoal business-as-usual outlook isn’t pretty for Sub-Saharan Africa, hope is not lost.
Solar power and other charcoal alternatives can help reduce deforestation, damage to women’s health, and mitigate climate change, with support from governments, civil society and private sector entrepreneurs via the methods outlined above.
John Costenbader is a climate change and natural resource governance specialist with DAI who advises governments, civil society and the private sector on environmental law, policy and program issues. Gwen Andersen is a clean energy policy and business development specialist also with DAI.